Schlagwort-Archive: Zuckerberg

Lets Get Rid of the “Nothing to Hide, Nothing to Fear” Mentality

With Zuckerberg testifying to the US Congress over Facebook’s data privacy and the implementation of GDPR fast approaching, the debate around data ownership has suddenly burst into the public psyche. Collecting user data to serve targeted advertising in a free platform is one thing, harvesting the social graphs of people interacting with apps and using it to sway an election is somewhat worse.

Suffice to say that neither of the above compare to the indiscriminate collection of ordinary civilians’ data on behalf of governments every day.

In 2013, Edward Snowden blew the whistle on the systematic US spy program he helped to architect. Perhaps the largest revelation to come out of the trove of documents he released were the details of PRISM, an NSA program that collects internet communications data from US telecommunications companies like Microsoft, Yahoo, Google, Facebook and Apple. The data collected included audio and video chat logs, photographs, emails, documents and connection logs of anyone using the services of 9 leading US internet companies. PRISM benefited from changes to FISA that allowed warrantless domestic surveillance of any target without the need for probable cause. Bill Binney, former US intelligence official, explains how, for instances where corporate control wasn’t achievable, the NSA enticed third party countries to clandestinely tap internet communication lines on the internet backbone via the RAMPART-A program.What this means is that the NSA was able to assemble near complete dossiers of all web activity carried out by anyone using the internet.

But this is just in the US right?, policies like this wouldn’t be implemented in Europe.

Wrong unfortunately.

GCHQ, the UK’s intelligence agency allegedly collects considerably more metadata than the NSA. Under Tempora, GCHQ can intercept all internet communications from submarine fibre optic cables and store the information for 30 days at the Bude facility in Cornwall. This includes complete web histories, the contents of all emails and facebook entires and given that more than 25% of all internet communications flow through these cables, the implications are astronomical. Elsewhere, JTRIG, a unit of GCHQ have intercepted private facebook pictures, changed the results of online polls and spoofed websites in real time. A lot of these techniques have been made possible by the 2016 Investigatory Powers Act which Snowden describes as the most “extreme surveillance in the history of western democracy”.

But despite all this, the age old reprise; “if you’ve got nothing to hide, you’ve got nothing to fear” often rings out in debates over privacy.

Indeed, the idea is so pervasive that politicians often lean on the phrase to justify ever more draconian methods of surveillance. Yes, they draw upon the selfsame rhetoric of Joseph Goebbels, propaganda minister for the Nazi regime.

In drafting legislation for the the Investigatory Powers Act, May said that such extremes were necessary to ensure “no area of cyberspace becomes a haven for those who seek to harm us, to plot, poison minds and peddle hatred under the radar”.

When levelled against the fear of terrorism and death, its easy to see how people passively accept ever greater levels of surveillance. Indeed, Naomi Klein writes extensively in Shock Doctrine how the fear of external threats can be used as a smokescreen to implement ever more invasive policy. But indiscriminate mass surveillance should never be blindly accepted, privacy should and always will be a social norm, despite what Mark Zuckerberg said in 2010. Although I’m sure he may have a different answer now.

So you just read emails and look at cat memes online, why would you care about privacy?

In the same way we’re able to close our living room curtains and be alone and unmonitored, we should be able to explore our identities online un-impinged. Its a well rehearsed idea that nowadays we’re more honest to our web browsers than we are to each other but what happens when you become cognisant that everything you do online is intercepted and catalogued? As with CCTV, when we know we’re being watched, we alter our behaviour in line with whats expected.

As soon as this happens online, the liberating quality provided by the anonymity of the internet is lost. Your thinking aligns with the status quo and we lose the boundless ability of the internet to search and develop our identities. No progress can be made when everyone thinks the same way. Difference of opinion fuels innovation.

This draws obvious comparisons with Bentham’s Panopticon, a prison blueprint for enforcing control from within. The basic setup is as follows; there is a central guard tower surrounded by cells. In the cells are prisoners. The tower shines bright light so that the watchman can see each inmate silhouetted in their cell but the prisoners cannot see the watchman. The prisoners must assume they could be observed at any point and therefore act accordingly. In literature, the common comparison is Orwell’s 1984 where omnipresent government surveillance enforces control and distorts reality. With revelations about surveillance states, the relevance of these metaphors are plain to see.

In reality, theres actually a lot more at stake here.

With the Panopticon certain individuals are watched, in 1984 everyone is watched. On the modern internet, every person, irrespective of the threat they pose, is not only watched but their information is stored and archived for analysis.

Kafka’s The Trial, in which a bureaucracy uses citizens information to make decisions about them, but denies them the ability to participate in how their information is used, therefore seems a more apt comparison. The issue here is that corporations, more so, states have been allowed to comb our data and make decisions that affect us without our consent.

Maybe, as a member of a western democracy, you don’t think this matters. But what if you’re a member of a minority group in an oppressive regime? What if you’re arrested because a computer algorithm cant separate humour from intent to harm?

On the other hand, maybe you trust the intentions of your government, but how much faith do you have in them to keep your data private? The recent hack of the SEC shows that even government systems aren’t safe from attackers. When a business database is breached, maybe your credit card details become public, when a government database that has aggregated millions of data points on every aspect of your online life is hacked, you’ve lost all control of your ability to selectively reveal yourself to the world. Just as Lyndon Johnson sought to control physical clouds, he who controls the modern cloud, will rule the world.

Perhaps you think that even this doesn’t matter, if it allows the government to protect us from those that intend to cause harm then its worth the loss of privacy. The trouble with indiscriminate surveillance is that with so much data you see everything but paradoxically, still know nothing.

Intelligence is the strategic collection of pertinent facts, bulk data collection cannot therefore be intelligent. As Bill Binney puts it “bulk data kills people” because technicians are so overwhelmed that they cant isolate whats useful. Data collection as it is can only focus on retribution rather than reduction.

Granted, GDPR is a big step forward for individual consent but will it stop corporations handing over your data to the government? Depending on how cynical you are, you might think that GDPR is just a tool to clean up and create more reliable deterministic data anyway. The nothing to hide, nothing to fear mentality renders us passive supplicants in the removal of our civil liberties. We should be thinking about how we relate to one another and to our Governments and how much power we want to have in that relationship.

To paraphrase Edward Snowden, saying you don’t care about privacy because you’ve got nothing to hide is analogous to saying you don’t care about freedom of speech because you have nothing to say.

http://behindthebrowser.space/index.php/2018/04/22/nothing-to-fear-nothing-to-hide/

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Forget Facebook

Forget Facebook

Photo Credits: oe24.at – Copyrights of oe24.at reserved

Source: Techcrunch.com

Cambridge Analytica may have used Facebook’s data to influence your political opinions. But why does least-liked tech company Facebook have all this data about its users in the first place?

Let’s put aside Instagram, WhatsApp and other Facebook products for a minute. Facebook has built the world’s biggest social network. But that’s not what they sell. You’ve probably heard the internet saying “if a product is free, it means that you are the product.”

And it’s particularly true in this case because Facebook is the world’s second biggest advertising company in the world behind Google. During the last quarter of 2017, Facebook reported $12.97 billion in revenue, including $12.78 billion from ads.

That’s 98.5 percent of Facebook’s revenue coming from ads.

Ads aren’t necessarily a bad thing. But Facebook has reached ad saturation in the newsfeed. So the company has two options — creating new products and ad formats, or optimizing those sponsored posts.

Facebook has reached ad saturation in the newsfeed

This isn’t a zero-sum game — Facebook has been doing both at the same time. That’s why you’re seeing more ads on Instagram and Messenger. And that’s also why ads on Facebook seem more relevant than ever.

If Facebook can show you relevant ads and you end up clicking more often on those ads, then advertisers will pay Facebook more money.

So Facebook has been collecting as much personal data about you as possible — it’s all about showing you the best ad. The company knows your interests, what you buy, where you go and who you’re sleeping with.

You can’t hide from Facebook

Facebook’s terms and conditions are a giant lie. They are purposely misleading, too long and too broad. So you can’t just read the company’s terms of service and understand what it knows about you.

That’s why some people have been downloading their Facebook data. You can do it too, it’s quite easy. Just head over to your Facebook settings and click the tiny link that says “Download a copy of your Facebook data.”

In that archive file, you’ll find your photos, your posts, your events, etc. But if you keep digging, you’ll also find your private messages on Messenger (by default, nothing is encrypted).

And if you keep digging a bit more, chances are you’ll also find your entire address book and even metadata about your SMS messages and phone calls.

All of this is by design and you agreed to it. Facebook has unified terms of service and share user data across all its apps and services (except WhatsApp data in Europe for now). So if you follow a clothing brand on Instagram, you could see an ad from this brand on Facebook.com.

Messaging apps are privacy traps

But Facebook has also been using this trick quite a lot with Messenger. You might not remember, but the on-boarding experience on Messenger is really aggressive.

On iOS, the app shows you a fake permission popup to access your address book that says “Ok” or “Learn More”. The company is using a fake popup because you can’t ask for permission twice.

There’s a blinking arrow below the OK button.

If you click on “Learn More”, you get a giant blue button that says “Turn On”. Everything about this screen is misleading and Messenger tries to manipulate your emotions.

“Messenger only works when you have people to talk to,” it says. Nobody wants to be lonely, that’s why Facebook implies that turning on this option will give you friends.

Even worse, it says “if you skip this step, you’ll need to add each contact one-by-one to message them.” This is simply a lie as you can automatically talk to your Facebook friends using Messenger without adding them one-by-one.

The next time you pay for a burrito with your credit card, Facebook will learn about this transaction and match this credit card number with the one you added in Messenger

If you tap on “Not Now”, Messenger will show you a fake notification every now and then to push you to enable contact syncing. If you tap on yes and disable it later, Facebook still keeps all your contacts on its servers.

On Android, you can let Messenger manage your SMS messages. Of course, you guessed it, Facebook uploads all your metadata. Facebook knows who you’re texting, when, how often.

Even if you disable it later, Facebook will keep this data for later reference.

But Facebook doesn’t stop there. The company knows a lot more about you than what you can find in your downloaded archive. The company asks you to share your location with your friends. The company tracks your web history on nearly every website on earth using embedded JavaScript.

But my favorite thing is probably peer-to-peer payments. In some countries, you can pay back your friends using Messenger. It’s free! You just have to add your card to the app.

It turns out that Facebook also buys data about your offline purchases. The next time you pay for a burrito with your credit card, Facebook will learn about this transaction and match this credit card number with the one you added in Messenger.

In other words, Messenger is a great Trojan horse designed to learn everything about you.

And the next time an app asks you to share your address book, there’s a 99-percent chance that this app is going to mine your address book to get new users, spam your friends, improve ad targeting and sell email addresses to marketing companies.

I could say the same thing about all the other permission popups on your phone. Be careful when you install an app from the Play Store or open an app for the first time on iOS. It’s easier to enable something if a feature doesn’t work without it than to find out that Facebook knows everything about you.

GDPR to the rescue

There’s one last hope. And that hope is GDPR. I encourage you to read TechCrunch’s Natasha Lomas excellent explanation of GDPR to understand what the European regulation is all about.

Many of the misleading things that are currently happening at Facebook will have to change. You can’t force people to opt in like in Messenger. Data collection should be minimized to essential features. And Facebook will have to explain why it needs all this data to its users.

If Facebook doesn’t comply, the company will have to pay up to 4 percent of its global annual turnover. But that doesn’t stop you from actively reclaiming your online privacy right now.

You can’t be invisible on the internet, but you have to be conscious about what’s happening behind your back. Every time a company asks you to tap OK, think about what’s behind this popup. You can’t say that nobody told you.

Source: Techcrunch.com

Music Streaming in der Cloud, die early adopters stage ist vorbei

Begonnen hat alles 1999 mit Napster, einer 2001 durch Gerichtsbeschlüsse dichtgemachte Inkarnation freier digitaler Musik, eine Tauschbörse.

5 Jahre später: Wer im Jahr 2006 Musik auf legalem Wege hören wollte, war auf Online-Radios, Webradios (mittels des kostenlosen Musikplayers Winamp) angewiesen. In den Anfängen steckten interaktive Services, wo nach Eingabe von Musikpräferenzen (Künstlername, Songtitel) weitere relevante Titel dem Endkunden vorgespielt wurden. vgl. Pandora Webstreaming Der Endkunde konnte nicht den genauen Titel bestimmen, den er hören wollte, sondern ausschließlich Genre, und Künstlername.

5 Jahre später: 2011. die Music Streaming Services, sind Erwachsen geworden. Nahezu jeder Big Player im Internet hat im Jahr 2010 bis 2011 sein eigenes Music Streaming Angebot online gestellt. Facebook hat sich mit dem Europäischen Marktführer Spotify zusammengetan, Google hat Google Music Beta gelauncht, Apple launcht die iCloud und Microsoft ist sichtlich bemüht den Anschluss nicht zu verlieren.

Wie sieht die nahe Zukunft aus?

„Songs werden Links, abspielbar mittels einem Klick, direkt aus einem Newsfeed, einer E-Mail oder einem Facebook Profil Posting.“

Zur Finanzierung: Spotify, gegründet 2008, besitzt eine große Userbasis, die nicht bereits ist für eine Music Streaming Leistung Geld in die Hand zu nehmen. Sie werden mit Online-Werbung verwöhnt, und hören ein paar Minuten Werbung zwischen den gestreamten Songs. Für User, die das nicht möchten, hat Spotify eine Bezahlvariante im Angebot. Je nach Nutzerklasse werden somit Ad-Revenues bzw. Direct-Payments des Usersrelevant.

Daniel Ek, Gründer von Spotify:

Durch die Schaffung des IPhones und von Facebook wurde es erstmals sinnvoll möglich Streaming Services anzubieten. Iphone und Facebook definierten zwei Meilensteine des Digitalen Lebens – des mobilen Webzugangs und des Social Netzworkings. Durch Smartphones können Streaming Music Services on the Go genutzt werden; durch soziale Netzwerke können User ihre Musik von Freunden bekommen, anstatt sie mühsam in Online-Börsen zu suchen.

95% aller Streams müssen innerhalb von 200 Millisekunden ausgeliefert werden. Wird diese Zeit überschritten, fällt dem User dies als störende Verzögerung negativ auf.

Ek ist überzeugt, er wird Itunes mittels eines simplen Tricks überholen. Social Networking bietet einen entscheidenden Unterschied zu tradionellem Itunes (oder Music Store) Kauf. Das Erlebnis der sozialen Interaktion.
Auf einer Streaming Platform steht das Erlebnis und Entdeckungs-Moment im Vordergrund, wogegen auf einer Bezahlplattform Musik nicht „ausprobiert“ (also gratis gestream) werden kann. Es muss bezahlt werden. Auf Spotify können einzelne Songs, sogar ganze Alben in den Posteingang eines Freundes gelegt werden. Social Interaction 3.0 mit dem Ziel möglichst viele Kunden von Freemium Kunden zu Pay-Kunden zu konvertieren.

Facebok und Spotify – eine Romanze:
Durch die extreme Marktmacht von Facebook kann Facebook diese sogar noch verstärken, wenn es als „Social Hub“ auftritt. Einem Ort, wo user sich aufhalten, und Dinge gemeinsam tun. Musik hören zum Beispiel, diese mit Freunden tauschen, die sich auf einen Knopfdruck damit verbinden können. Gibt es bereits von Youtube? Ja richtig, aber youtube gehört dem Konkurrenten google, dem man mit dieser Strategie User abspenstig machen möchte.
Zuckerberg stellt klar wo die Reise hingeht: Facebook wird kein Music Anbieter. Dafür stellt man die Zusammenarbeit mit Partnern in den Vordergrund. Partner, die sich um Lizenzierung und rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen kümmern.
Auch wenn dies mehrere Musik-Partner sein können.

Die Transformation von analog zu digital hat die Musikindustrie verändert wie keine andere Branche, hart und unvorbereitet. 2012 werden wir die seamless Integration in Social Networks (google+) und apples cloud services erleben. Seien Sie gespannt. innovativ@dieIdee.eu

Quelle: http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/10/ff_music/all/1